Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Johnson C. Smith University is a private historically black university with an acceptance rate of 46%. Located on an 100-acre campus in Charlotte, North Carolina, JCSUs nearly 1,600 students are supported by a 13-to-1 student / faculty ratio. Students can choose from 22 undergraduate programs through JCSUs three colleges. Johnson C. Smith has a host of student clubs and organizations, and is a member of the NCAA Division IIÃ Central Intercollegiate Athletics Association (CIAA). Considering applying to Johnson C. Smith University? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Johnson C. Smith University had an acceptance rate of 46%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 46 students were admitted, making JCSUs admissions process competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 6,369 Percent Admitted 46% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 12% SAT Scores and Requirements Johnson C. Smith University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 76% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 420 490 Math 390 490 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of Johnson C. Smiths admitted students fall within the bottom 29% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Johnson C. Smith University scored between 420 and 490, while 25% scored below 420 and 25% scored above 490. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 390 and 490, while 25% scored below 390 and 25% scored above 490. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 980 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at Johnson C. Smith University. Requirements Johnson C. Smith does not require the SAT writing section. Note that JCSU participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements Johnson C. Smith requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 40% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 12 17 Math 14 17 Composite 14 18 This admissions data tells us that most of JCSUs admitted students fall within the bottom 14% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Johnson C. Smith received a composite ACT score between 14 and 18, while 25% scored above 18 and 25% scored below 14. Requirements Johnson C. Smith does not require the optional ACT writing section. Note that JCSU does not provide information regarding the schools ACT superscore policy. GPA In 2017, the average high school GPA of Johnson C. Smith Universitys incoming freshmen class was 2.84, and over 65% of incoming students had average GPAs of 2.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to JCSU have primarily B-/C grades. Admissions Chances Johnson C. Smith University, which accepts just under half of applicants, has a somewhat selective admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average range, you have a strong chance of being accepted. However, JCSU also considers academic achievement inÃ required high schoolÃ coursework. Potential applicants should have a minimum of four English courses; three math courses; two social science courses; two natural science courses (including one with a lab); and two foreign language courses. While not required, Johnson C. Smith will also consider application essays and letters of recommendation if submitted. JCSU recommendsÃ that interested applicants visit and tour the campus.Ã Students with particularly compelling stories or achievements can still receive serious consideration even if their grades and test scores are outside Johnson C. Smiths average range. If You Like Johnson C. Smith University, You May Also Like These Schools Spelman CollegeUniversity of North Carolina - CharlotteEast Carolina UniversityHoward UniversityMorehouse CollegeNorth Carolina AT State UniversityUniversity of North Carolina - Asheville All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Johnson C. Smith University Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Friday, May 15, 2020
1. Define the mental illness. Depression is a mental illness and condition that influences the brain. The mental illness affects an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings and thoughts negatively which results in the lowering of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mood. 2. Describe the nature of the mental illness. Depression is a real mental condition that affects many people around the world. It affects all ages, social backgrounds and genders. There are many signs and symptoms of depression. Common symptoms of depression are sleeping problems, great weight loss or gain, headaches, being tired regularly and being overwhelmed. A lowering mood is known to alter oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sleeping patterns whether if they are waking too early or sleeping in, greatly impacting the way they wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦3. Identify potential causes of developing this particular mental illness, referencing the sources that you use. 1. Death- The death of a loved one or friends can be quite devastating to an individual. Death causes the person to be despondent and dejected knowing the person will never be able to come back. Depending on how they were related to the deceased person, the depression of an individual can last days, weeks, months or even years. It is normal to experience depression due to death. 2. Substance abuse- Substance abuse is the mistreated use of alcohol and drugs by an individual 3. Environmental depression is depression caused by factors in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s surrounding environment. 4. Genetic depression is depression caused by an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s inherited genes that are passed down by another victim of depression 5. Childhood trauma can cause depression if an individual recalls or experienced childhood events that has traumatized the victim. 4. Explain how and/or why the potential causes contribute to the mental illness. 1. Depression is a common mental illness people undergo when they are experiencing the death of a friends, family member or colleague. Death of someone you know will lead to grief and pre-longed periods of sadness. People will experience denial of the death, bargaining, anger and then finally acceptance of the death which then results to healing.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I have a Twitter and a Facebook account, and both I find myself using not as much as I used to. As a matter of fact I find myself using the internet a lot less of late; it just seems to have lost Ã¢â¬Å"that thingÃ¢â¬ that made it extraordinary at first. I just think the longer itÃ¢â¬â¢s around, or the more advanced it gets, the more it has a negative influence on society and individuals. To me, social media has created a new form of bullying, stereotyping, and racism. Along with the overuse of the internet, giving social media more authority, where it is able to expand in form. And last but not least, the way people have taken something that started out constructive, and mutated it into something that can be so negative. Some days when I sit and lookÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I just donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the point in it anymore; it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t excite me like it used to, in fact it does the absolute opposite. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been on Facebook for almost seven years and itÃ¢â¬â¢s almost the end of my Ã¢â¬Å"tenureÃ¢â¬ there. Ive seen everything that website has had to offer, good or bad. It used to be so fun for me, I could send hours on end on the website and still be longing more; it was damn near addictive! But IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives fall apart on the website, including my own, peoples darkest times made public to be judged by everyone else. People I had gone to high school with, that I thought I knew, started sharing their thoughts, no matter how chauvinistic, critical and stereotypical they were. I started to see the dark side of Facebook. People turned what used to be a social website into their own, personal burn book. Everybody had a Facebook page, including celebrities, and people used Facebook to comment on their posts to tear them down. Ive seen negative remarks about people of a certain race, religion, income bracket, etc, its absurd! Social media has given people a new way to voice their opinion, and since this new virtual world allowed them to say what they want without any direct repercussions. For normal people like me, and celebrities alike, itÃ¢â¬â¢s constant scrutiny on social websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Tumblr, etc,. IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure when their creators first envisioned these websitesShow MoreRelatedThe Positive And Negative Implications Of Social Networking Sites1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe positive and negative implications of social networking sites. Introduction Social networking sites have become a big part of our lives. These sites are indeed twofold, and their impact on society is both positive and negative. My essay will, therefore try to answer both sides of the impact social networking sites have in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. A website article by (Shruti Tripathi Chopra 2015) stated that in 2008 Facebook made and estimated $300 million, that rose to a profit in 2014 of $2.9. TheRead MoreEssay On Pros And Cons Of Social Media1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Benefits of Social Media in Todays Society Just like everything else in life, social media has pros and cons. However, the pros outweigh the cons. Social networking assists businesses in various different ways. While also helping people communicate more with others and to become more connected with them too. A fast and effortless way to spread and receive crucial information is through social media. In the beginning, it was just kids spending their time on websites like Facebook, MyspaceRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial media is the communication between individuals and groups to share and exchange their ideas through internet. The social networking is part of social media which plays the important role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The biggest impact of the social networking is on children, youngs, and adults. Nowaday children are growing up surrounded by technology. They like to use technology such as mobile, tablets, and computers because they can connect easily to social network. We a ll know how important social networkingRead MoreThe Impact Of Social Media On The Workplace853 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, it is crucial for employees to understand the significance in the use of social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook. This subject will discuss the primary reasons companies allow the usage of social networking sites in the workplace. It will also explain the positive impact social media usage has in the workplace, such as allowing communication to a broader audience. In addition to the positive usage, this topic will also explore the negative implications usage can causeRead MoreThe Importance of Limiting Ones Use of Online Social Media1652 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImportance of Limiting OneÃ¢â¬â¢s Use of Online Social Media After the progression of new technology, within the past decade, and the development of social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, societal norms have significantly changed. Online dating and socializing has become more common and, with that, so has the documentation of profiles of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ data and personal information, all up for the world to see. This new era of online social interaction is essentially diminishing andRead MoreEffects Of Social Media Essay946 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow does social networking affect teens? Social Networking is Ã¢â¬Å" the use of dedicated websites and applications to interact with other or to find people with similar interestsÃ¢â¬ . Social networking consists of various social media websites such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, etc. These social media applications have become increasingly popular amongst teens. The webÃ¢â¬â¢s social network has grown to be one of the largest and most influential outlet on the internet. Social media have both a positiveRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On The Real Society981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdeveloped social networking websites are corrosive to the real society The increase of technological advancements such as the development of social media websites like twitter, Facebook, Instagram and snap chat has indeed made the world seem like a mere global village. However, in as much as the social networks have increased interactions via the internet, it has diminished the inter-personal relationship with actual people. Therefore, it is effective to state that, the recent development of social networkingRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society902 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial media has become a very prevalent part of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. It is the newest form of communication, but this system may have some underlying problems. There has been an ongoing question whether, social media is a resourceful way to communicate or a technological nuisance that leads to loneliness. Some believe that social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, are great ways to stay in touch with friends, family, and colleagues. On the other end of the sp ectrum are those who thinkRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society Essay1560 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswaiting for their next high, society has become more and more dependent on social media. One must realize, while the use of social media in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society is a necessity due to the fast-paced environment that has been created, it can never fully replace the value received from personal interaction with others. The short film titled, The Library Book, perfectly illustrates this as the characters within the film learn to assimilate in a society dominated by social media. The actions of each characterRead MoreNegative Effects Of Social Media1297 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the twenty-first century, social media plays an extensive part in most peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Instagram, Twitter, and many other social networks can cause adverse psychological harm and even lead to physical harm. Although many may argue that social media pertains to be useful, there prove to be more harmful aspects rather than helpful aspects of these media sites. These effects are not only psychological, but they may also be physical. Not only do social networks cause depression, anxiety, and cyberbullying
The ruler of Germany his name was Adolf Hitler. After reading about his history I felt quite interesting about him. The first conqueror of Germany was the brave person who never afraid of others although his origin was Austria. From his childhood only he was leader and popular in his school level due to his potential. During his childhood he was not that much good at study but he was interested in doing arts and architecture. He left his school because of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t attended school in his hometown up to three years when he left the school. After three years he applied for the academy name called Vienna academy of arts and architecture but he was rejected. At that time he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do anything but after thinking for long time he kept about politics in his mind. He was the first person who was interested about politics. Almost He was interested about anti-Semitic, nationalist Christian-socialist party (). He enrolled and walked with the parties for a long time and also became success in many steps. He had done a great job for the politics. When the first world was started to begun he was also enrolled in the war as a volunteer for fight for the Germany army and shown his bravery. After looking his great braveness, he gained the rank of the corporal also earned a dispatch runner prize belonging to this he had also won several prizes for his bravery. After his several war he wasShow MoreRelatedAdolf Hitler As A Leader Of Nazi Germany1677 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAdolf Hitler once said Ã¢â¬Å"It is more difficult to fight against faith than against knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"30 Eye Catching Hitler Quotes.). In a dictatorship there is one ruler who is in charge of everything in the nation in which he/she rules. Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau am Inn. Hitler also known as FÃ ¼hrer; he was chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and served as dictator from 1934 to 1945. Adolf Hitler was the leader of Nazi Germany, he was one of the initial causes which triggeredRead MoreAdolf Hitler As A Post Christ1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages People sometimes refer to Adolf Hitler as a post-Christ Nero because of Hitler s ruthless attitudes and actions towards innocent citizens, similar to Nero when he persecuted Christians during his rule about two thousand years prior(Kershaw). Hitler dealt with a depressing childhood, which included the deaths of his parents and the inability to pursue his dreams as an artist(Knapp). Thereafter, Hitler became interested in politics, as he eventually joined the Small German Workers party(Nazis)Read MoreThe Holocaust, By Robert Burns1121 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNazi Germany led by Adolf Hitler from 1939 to 1945. There were millions of people that were cycled through the concentration camps that the Nazis built. The millions of people that were killed are just a small portion of the billions that were indirectly impacted by the horrible actions of the Nazis. I believe t hat Nazi Germany performed inhumane acts on the people that they put into the concentration camps, therefore indirectly affecting millions, possibly billions, of people. When Adolf HitlerRead MoreAdolf Hitler : The World s Most Recognizable And Notable Leaders1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ Adolf Hitler, born April 20, 1889, in Braunau am Inn, Austria, grew up to be GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s dictator in the 1930s and early 40s, killing millions of Jews in the process. His childhood and young adulthood may be cited by some as the reason for his oppressive attitude and vicious behavior that would be very clear later in his profound life. Adolf Hitler, one the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most recognizable and notable leaders, lived a life marked by torture and hate, a childhood full of unfortunate events, an honorableRead MoreEssay on Adolf Hitler927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAdolf Hitler Adolf Hitler, to some, was a great ruler, but to others he was a murderer. Hitler was the leader of the Nazi party and was the dictator of Germany. He ordered to have millions of Jews murdered or thrown in prisons. Adolf Hitler was born April 20, 1889, in a small town in Australia called Branuan. His dads name was Alios Hitler and was a customs official. He was 51 years old when Adolf was born. Klara Polz, Adolfs mother, was a farm girl and was 28 when Adolf was bornRead MorePol Pot vs. Adolf Hitler Essay1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThough Communist leader Pol Pot and German nationalist Adolf Hitler can be compared in several ways, there are also myriad differences between their ascendancies. The social dispositions and executions of Adolf Hitler and Pol Pot, although similar in several ways, also differed for numerous reasons during their supremacies. The social perspectives and exploits of Hitler and Pol Pot have multiple similarities. For example, both Pol Pot and Hitler advocated and, to an extent, succeeded in mass executionRead MoreWhy Was Jesse Owens A Black Man Was The Dictator Of Germany?1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages It was 1936 and Hitler was the ruler of Germany, his beliefs were very opinionated. He thought Arians were the born rulers and leaders of the world and everyone else was 2nd. Jesse Owens a black man was going to the Olympics in Berlin, Germany. In the 1936 Olympics Jesse Owens took a stand against Adolf Hitler because, he challenged his mindset towards minorities and proved you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be Arian to be great at sports. As you may know Hitler was the dictator of Germany. He ruled from 1934Read MoreAdolf Hitler : Mein Kampf, Nation And Race1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJennifer Mills College Writing Dec 11, 2014 Adolf Hitler: Mein Kampf, Nation and Race Adolf Hitler was born in Austria, on April 20, 1889. He was the fourth child of the six children from Alois Hitler and Klara Polzl. When Adolf was three years old, his whole family moved into Germany. In his young age, he had many arguments with his father until he became detached and introverted when his young brother died in 1900. (HistoryLearningSite, 2014) Adolf was interested in fine arts than business, soRead More Adolf Hitlers Leadership and the Government that Follows Essay1163 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrich exploit the proletariat.Ã¢â¬ This is the exact idea that Adolf Hitler had. If the people knew just how much strength they had as a whole, it was enough to over throw the power of one man. In Animal Farm, the pigs didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel as if they were being treated equally and were able to over throw one leader who just so happens to be Mr. Frederick, the tough owner of Pinchfield who portrays Germany, or in finer terms, Adolf Hitler. Adolf Hitler was a dictator of the German Nazi movement. He was born AprilRead MoreConnections Between Hitler And The Prince1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConnections between Hitler and The Prince Hitler said, Ã¢â¬Å"Germany will either be a world power or will not be at allÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Adolf Hitler QuoteÃ¢â¬ ). Adolph Hitler became the leader of the German Nazi party in 1933. His leadership was both loved and despised. He controlled the Nazi party for more than a decade (Ã¢â¬Å"Adolph HitlerÃ¢â¬ ). Considering the length of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s reign, he must have had leadership qualities that people found admirable or they feared him so greatly that no one would attempt to overthrow
Question: Discuss About The Aboriginal Sovereignty And Reconciliation? Answer: Introducation This article discussed the Aboriginal Embassy as an inspirational demonstration of the fifth for land rights as well as the self-determination of the Aboriginal. This is especially in the reoccupation of the land that is in front of the parliament house for a half a year in 1972. Since then, the protesters have strived to maintain the embassy on the particular location as a statement for their continued Aboriginal struggle. Monumentally, 20 years later in 1992, the demonstrators pronounced Aboriginal sovereignty. This was instrumental at the time since state-instituted reconciliation talks were kicking off in the country. In the Australian public discourse, the reconciliation process is always in tandem with progressive politics (Muldoon Schaap, 2012). The paper examines how reactionary politics especially those related to the reconciliation process impact the fight for land rights as well as the Embassys sovereignty. According to Muldoom and Schaap, the sovereignty of the state and democratic praxis are related. As can be seen from the case of Antonio Negri, the Embassy is deemed as one way in which the constituted power of the Aboriginal people can be exhibited. The same applies to those who do not support them. Until today, the Aboriginals still feel that their independence and sovereignty was not ceded underlining why they are always revolting. The authors also posit that the Australian state appropriates to prop up its claims regarding sovereignty that are hugely flawed. They go ahead to illustrate this proposition by drawing comparisons between the symbolism of the Reconciliation Place in Canberra and the Aboriginal Embassy. They outline various ways in which the Embassy exploits the fact that the Aboriginal people are ambiguous. This makes them appear as citizens that live within and without the community that is presupposed by the country. By so doing the Embassy brings forth the probability of there being a break with the past-the colonial era- then we see it in the reconciliatory politics which on the face of it the state has failed to implement. This article was very useful since it helped me understand the never-ending struggles between the Aboriginals and the Embassy. Apart from just shading light on the subject, it helped me understand why the reconciliation process is long overdue. According to the authors, the reconciliation process has been hindered by politics that oftentimes defocus the whole objectives, the article is replete with evidence regarding this. Reading this material was quite intimidating at the beginning due to its size. I had to jot down little notes for the eventual summarization. The emphasis on how the Aboriginals and the Embassy are related was particularly instrumental in comprehending how the phenomena affect the countrys wellbeing (Watson, 2017). The politics of atonement have come to shape the current political landscape of the country thus underlining their significance. They are also central to the reconciliation process that is now age-old. The apology of the stolen generations is another important aspect of the nations that are worth considering in this context. Atonement is all about making the sidelined communities feel again part of the national discourse (Goodall, 2016). Thus making them realize as beneficiaries of otherwise what was initially considered to be privileges of other communities in the past can be an instrumental part of the reconciliation process. Racial ideas have been central to the atonement process. Initially, there attempts to limit cover for acts of discrimination by maintaining the status quo which was a significant hindrance to their effectiveness. However, things are changing significantly with each passing day. References Muldoon, P., Schaap, A. (2012). Aboriginal sovereignty and the politics of Reconciliation: the constituent power of the Aboriginal Embassy in Australia. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 30(3), 534-550. Newfong, J. (2012). The Aboriginal Embassy. Identity. Dow, C. (2015). Aboriginal Tent Embassy: icon or eyesore?. Lothian, K. (2017). Moving blackwards: Black power and the Aboriginal Embassy. Watson, I. (2017). The Aboriginal Tent Embassy 28 Years After it was Established: Interview with Isobell Coe. Indigenous Law Bulletin, 5(1), 17-8. Goodall, H. (2016). Invasion to embassy: land in Aboriginal politics in New South Wales, 1770-1972. Sydney University Press.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: What is Globalisation and how does it affect domestic businesses? In your discussion, include both positive and negative impacts of Globalisation. Answer: The term globalization refers to the interconnection of countries through belonging to a common economic and social system. It is through globalization that markets across the globe are connected and also the modes of transport and communication are all connected. Globalization has made the world a global village from the fact that people from one continent can freely move and even conducts business without necessarily having to travel to another continent through E-commerce. Globalization has made commodities cheaper than in the home country a move that saw the United States and the European markets lose significant share as a result of globalized products. Positive impacts of globalization The proponents of globalization argue that there is a free trade that has the effect of promoting economic growth globally through job creation, increasing competition among companies thus enhancing high-quality products and lowering prices for commodities for the consumers (Collins 2015). Globalization presents an opportunity for the poor countries to infuse capital and technology enabling such countries to develop economically. It is through the sharing of prosperity among such countries that the frameworks of democracy and respect for human rights get enhanced. In the past, many countries failed to achieve democracy. Globalization has also increased the market for goods and services. It is a relief for companies that had a limited market for goods and services. In the past, companies had a problem to deal with when it came to searching for a market. But thanks to globalization, firms have now a wider market for their goods in other countries. On the other hand, consumers are relieved to form suffering from the few goods and services that limit the choice of their products. With the advent of globalization, consumers have a variety of products to pick from also they enjoy lower prices for the same products (Collins 2015). It is through globalization that labor mobility has been increased. People from one continent can freely move to other continents with the aim of working in such countries. Skills are freely transferable among countries. The advantage with labor mobility is the fact that firms are able to tap the best talent from other countries at reasonable prevailing wage rates. Global companies being set up in developing nations create employment opportunities for people working in such countries thus reducing poverty levels. It is also a source of revenue for the governments in such nations through taxation. Negative impacts of globalization One complaint about globalization is the fact that some countries become richer while others continue being poorer. Globalization has the effect making developed nations richer and the developing nations poorer. Globalization is a relief for the managers, entrepreneurs, and investors but on the other hand, it is starvation for the workers and the environment that gets degraded (Gandolfo and Trionfetti 2014). Globalization has a negative implication on jobs where most jobs are lost and transferred to lower cost countries. Some of the best talents get transferred to lower countries instead of being utilized in the developed nation. Globalization has also led dumping of products where cheap and unwanted commodities get discarded in the developing nations. Multinational companies also relocate to other countries with a bid to enjoy the tax havens in such countries in avoiding taxes (Kemp 2011). Products being developed overseas face the risk of being copied or stolen something for instance in countries like China such cases have been reported (Collins 2015). Globalization has led to the spread of diseases such as HIV/AIDS by travelers to the most remote areas in the world. Lastly, globalization has led to labor exploitation where children get used as laborers and also prisoners are forced to work under inhumane conditions. Safety gets ignored while producing cheap commodities. Human trafficking is also on the increase (Collins 2015). Comparison of comparative advantage and absolute advantage David Ricardo conceptualized the idea using very simple numerical examples in his earlier works in 1817 in one of the books entitled principles of political economy. Ricardos law was an improvement of the law of absolute advantage. Ricardo saw two countries where one country A was advanced in every productive activity than country B then the two countries would not from trade and the theory of absolute advantage had no solution to such an answer (Costinot and Donaldson 2012). However, with Ricardos theory of comparative advantage showed that such countries could still benefit from such a trade despite one country having the advantage in producing everything. Ricardos example of England and Portugal producing cloth and wine and labor was the only factor of production. Labor productivity varied among the countries and also industries. Ricardo assumed that Portugal was better positioned in the production of both goods (Costinot and Donaldson 2012). Country Wheat Wine Cost per man Hours Cost per man Hours England 15 30 Portugal 10 15 From the above diagram, it is evident that Portugal is better at producing wine. As such Portugal is said to have a comparative advantage in wine production. On the other hand, England is relatively better in wheat production and thus has a comparative advantage in wheat production. Absolute advantage According to Adam Smith, a country is said to have an absolute advantage when it is efficient in producing more of the product than any other country. Smith urged countries to specialize in producing countries that they had an absolute advantage. In economics, the principle of comparative advantage arises when a country is able to produce more goods and services than the competitors using the same resources (Schumacher 2012). In the world today, the concept of comparative advantage is more practical where there are countries have a comparative advantage in the production of some goods, for instance, Japan has a comparative advantage in steel production and for this reason, and Japan specializes in vehicle production compared to other countries in the world. However, with the absolute advantage, there are limitations in terms of its practicality where there are some countries that have an absolute advantage in the production of all goods. In such countries, it would be difficult to conduct trade since they produce everything relatively cheap and more goods at the same time. It is for such reasons that the theory of absolute advantage was improved by Ricardo through a more conventional approach of comparative advantage. Reasons behind a tariff A tariff is a tax imposed on goods and services either entering or leaving the country. In most cases, a tariff is meant to alter the balance of trade so as to ensure favorable terms of trade in favor of the country. For instance, a tariff on imports is meant to increase the cost of imports thus discouraging imports and favoring the local products. Protection of the local infant industries Tariffs are used in most cases to protect domestic industries that are in the initial stages from the external competition. President Trump may feel that there is need to shield the local industries from exploitation. The tariff acts as a protector by buying time that enables the firm to develop and grow into a competitive position (Hoffman 2016). National defense President Trump may want to impose tariffs in a particular segment of the American economy that provides sensitive products. Some industries are strategic more so n in the provision of weapons such as guns and warfare weapons to avoid international conflict with the Chinese suppliers and providers (Hoffman 2016). Aggressive trade practices Chinese products are known of flooding the United States market. It is the international competitors that employ aggressive tactics aimed at gaining market share that puts domestic producers out of competition and market. Mr. Trump may, therefore, advocate for tariffs to mitigate the effects of Chinese products employing unfair tactics. Environmental concerns Mr. Trump and his government will use tariffs in diminishing consumption of Chinese goods that do not adhere to the American environmental standards (Hoffman 2016). Domestic employment The Republican adopts policies that are aimed at creating job opportunities for the many citizens of America. In the case that domestic industries are unable to compete favorably with the Chinese firms, then the government will impose tariffs to discourage imports and encourage consumption of local products. The overall effect is that more jobs will be created thus enhancing job growth (Hoffman 2016). Effects of tariffs on consumers The American consumers of the Chinese products may be worse off as a result of the tariff. The tariff has the effect of raising the price of imported products and the domestic substitutes thus reducing the surplus that should be enjoyed by the consumer in the market. Supply of the imported commodity gets reduced as a result of increased costs in terms of tariffs. Suppliers always cut the quantity supplied with the introduction of taxes or tariffs decrease with supply means that less of the product is available and whenever supply is less there will be high prices for the commodities. Tariffs will impact on the consumer negatively as only a few commodities are available to choose from. The consumer has a limited variety thus limiting the choice of preference. Tariffs also reduce the purchasing power of the consumers as imports become expensive making the consumer purchase fewer quantities and also disposable income becomes less as money can only purchase few goods and services. References Collins, M. (2015). Forbes Welcome. [online] Forbes.com. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikecollins/2015/05/06/the-pros-and-cons-of-globalization/#15020c09ccce [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]. Costinot, A. and Donaldson, D. (2012). Ricardo's theory of comparative advantage. Cambridge, Mass. Gandolfo, G. and Trionfetti, F. (2014). International trade theory and policy. Heidelberg: Springer. Hoffman, G. (2016). The Importance Of Imposing Tariffs On Imports - International Media Project. [online] International Media Project. Available at: https://www.incaproject.org/importance-imposing-tariffs-imports/ [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]. Kemp, M. (2011). International trade theory. London: Routledge. Schumacher, R. (2012). Adam Smith's theory of absolute advantage and the use of doxography in the history of economics. Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, 5(2), p.54
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
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